Rakhi Making How to make rakhi at home

Rakhi Making How to make rakhi at home

Raksha Bandhan Date and timings:
18thAugust 2016 (Thursday) 
Raksha Bandhan Thread Ceremony Time - 06:03 to 14:56 Duration -8 Hours 53 Mins
Aparahan Time Raksha Bandhan Muhurat - 13:35 to 14:56 Duration - 1 Hour 21 Mins

Rakhi making at home is very lovely for all the girls. After all, Rakhi is the festival of brothers and sisters. Learn here how to make Rakhi at home.significance of raksha bandhan
How to make Rakhi:
Rakhi is generally a decorated silk thread. It may be a simple thread or it may be decorated with beads or designer motifs, religious symbols or even studded with jewels. Here are a few tip on how you can create your own rakhi.
Material required:
1. Silk threads-multi-coloured(more colors)
2. Cotton thread
3. Beads, sequins
4. Scissors
5. Glue
Take a bunch of silk threads, multicolored if you want a colorful rakhi. Red and yellow are considered auspicious colors. You can also use a strand or two of golden thread. The threads should be around 30" long. Fold the length of the thread bunch to half. Tie a tight knot at one fourth of the length using the cotton thread. Cut the loops of the folded thread and fluff the open ends with a hard brush.

Divide the longer part of the thread into two halves and plat them in desired way. Tie the ends with the cotton thread and fluff the open ends. These two strands will be used for the tying.
raksha bandhan quotes
Decorate the upper part with sequins, beads or religious motifs. If you are using multicolored threads arranged in some specific way, cut them short to a suitable length not more than ½".
significance of raksha bandhan

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Rakhi Raksha Bandhan story and quotes sms

Rakhi Raksha Bandhan quotes sms
Raksha Bandhan Date and timings:
18thAugust 2016 (Thursday) 
Raksha Bandhan Thread Ceremony Time - 06:03 to 14:56 Duration -8 Hours 53 Mins
Aparahan Time Raksha Bandhan Muhurat - 13:35 to 14:56 Duration - 1 Hour 21 Mins

Raksha Bandhan:
Raksha Bandhan is a Hindu festival that celebrates the love and duty between brothers and sistersIn India, festivals are the celebration of togetherness, of being one of the family.The festival is also popularly used to celebrate any brother-sister relationship between men and women who are relatives or biologically unrelated It is called Rakhi Purnima, or simplyRakhi, in many parts of India.The festival is observed by Hindus, Jains, and many Sikhs.Raksha Bandhan is primarily observed in India, Mauritius and parts of Nepal. It is also celebrated by Hindus and Sikhs in parts of Pakistan,and by some people of Indian origin around the world.
Raksha Bandhan is one such festival that is all about affection, fraternity and sublime sentiments. It is also known as Raksha Bandhan which means a 'bond of protection'. This is an occasion to flourish love, care, affection and sacred feeling of brotherhood.
Story of Raksha Bandhan:
According to Hindu scripture Bhavishya Purana, in the war between Gods and demons, Indra - the deity of sky, rains and thunderbolts - was disgraced by the powerful demon King Bali. Indra’s wife Sachi consulted Vishnu, who gave her a bracelet made of cotton thread, calling it holy.Sachi tied the holy thread around Indra wrist, blessed with her prayers for his well being and success. Indra successfully defeated the evil and recovered Amaravati. This story inspired the protective power of holy thread.The story also suggests that the Raksha Bandhan thread in ancient India were amulets, used by women as prayers and to guard men going to war, and that these threads were not limited to sister-brother like relationships.
Rakhi Making How to make rakhi at home
According to this legend, credited to Hindu scriptures Bhagavata Purana and Vishnu Purana, after Vishnu won the three worlds from the demon King Bali, he was asked by Bali that Vishnu live in his palace, a request Vishnu granted. Vishnu's wife, Goddess Lakshmi did not like the palace or his new found friendship with Bali, and preferred that her husband and she return to Vaikuntha. So she went to Bali, tied a Rakhi and made him a brother. Bali asked her what gift she desired. Lakshmi asked that Vishnu be freed from the request that he live in Bali's palace. Bali consented, as well accepted her as his sister.

There is another story is also known as Ganesh had two sons, Shubh and Labh. On Raksha Bandhan, Ganesh's sister visited and tied a Rakhi on Ganesh's wrist. The two boys become frustrated that they have no sister to celebrate Raksha Bandhan with. They ask their father Ganesh for a sister, but to no avail. Finally, saint Narada appears who persuades Ganesh that a daughter will enrich him as well as his sons. Ganesh agreed, and created a daughter named Santoshi Ma by divine flames that emerged from Ganesh's wives,Rddhi (Amazing) and Siddhi (Perfection). Thereafter, Shubh Labh (literally "Holy Profit") had a sister named Santoshi Ma (literally "Goddess of Satisfaction"), who loved and protected each other.

Krishna considered Draupadi his sister. When Krishna cut his finger while beheading Shishupal, Draupadi immediately tore off a piece of her sari and bandaged his cut. Krishna said that with this loving act, she wrapped him in debt and he would repay each “thread” when the time arrives. Indeed, whenever Draupadi needed Krishna’s protection she fervently prayed for his help, he came to the rescue and gave her unlimited cloth. This is one of the stories of the origin of the Raksha Bandhan festival.In the epic Mahabharat, Draupadi tied a Rakhi to Krishna, while Kunti tied her Rakhito her grandson Abhimanyu, before the great war.

According to another legend, Yama, the god of Death had not visited his sisterYamuna for 12 years. Yamuna, the goddess of Yamuna river, was sad and consulted Ganga, the goddess of Ganga river. Ganga reminded Yama of his sister, upon which Yama visits her. Yamuna was overjoyed to see her brother, and prepared a bounty of food for Yama. The god Yama was delighted, and asked Yamuna what she wanted for gift. She wished that he, her brother should return and see her again soon. Yama was moved by his sister's love, agreed and to be able to see her again, made river Yamuna immortal. This legend is the basis for a Raksha Bandhan-like festival called Bhai Duj in some parts of India, which also celebrates brother-sister love, but near Diwali.
Historical stories:
Alexander the Great and King Puru:
According to one legendary narrative, when Alexander the Great invaded India in 326 BCE, Roxana (or Roshanak, his wife) sent a sacred thread to Porus, asking him not to harm her husband in battle. In accordance with tradition, Porus, the king ofKaikeya kingdom, gave full respect to the rakhi. On the battlefield, when Porus was about to deliver a final blow to Alexander, he saw the rakhi on his own wrist and restrained himself from attacking Alexander personally.
Rakhi Making How to make rakhi at home
Rani Karnavati and Emperor Humayun:
Another controversial historical account is that of Rani Karnavati of Chittor and Mughal Emperor Humayun, which dates to 1535 CE. When Rani Karnavati, the widowed queen of the king of Chittor, realised that she could not defend against the invasion by the Sultan of Gujarat, Bahadur Shah, she sent a Rakhi to Emperor Humayun. Touched, the Emperor immediately set off with his troops to defend Chittor.Humayun arrived too late, and Bahadur Shah managed to sack the Rani's fortress. Although contemporary commentators and memoirs do not mention the Rakhi episode and some historians have expressed skepticism about it, it is mentioned in one mid-seventeenth century Rajasthani account.
How celebrate Raksha Bandhan:

On the day of Rakhi, sisters prepares the pooja thali with diya, roli, chawal, rakhi thread and sweets. The ritual begins with a prayer in front of God, then the sister ties Rakhi to her brother and wishes for his happiness and well-being. In turn, the brother acknowledge the love with a promise to stand by his sister through all the good and bad times.

Sisters tie Rakhi on the wrist of their brothers amid chanting of mantras, put roli and rice on his forehead and pray for his well-being. She bestows him with gifts and blessings. In turn, brothers also wish her a good life and pledges to take care of her. He gives her a return gift. The gift symbolizes the physical acceptance of her love, reminder of their togetherness and his pledge. The legends and the reference in history repeated, the significance of the festival is emphasized.

Raksha bandhan has been celebrated in the same way with the same traditions for many years. Only the means have changed with the changing lifestyle to make the celebration more elaborate and lively. This day has an inherent power that pulls the siblings together. The increasing distances evoke the desire to be together even more. All brothers and sisters try to reach out to each other on this auspicious day. The joyous meeting, the rare family get-together, that erstwhile feeling of brotherhood and sisterhood calls for a massive celebration. 

People also share tasty dishes, wonderful sweets and exchange gifts. It is a time to share their past experiences also. For those who are not able to meet each other, rakhi cards and e-rakhis and rakhis through mails perform the part of communicating the rakhi messages. Hand made rakhis and self-made rakhi cards are just representation of the personal feelings of the siblings.
Rakhi Making How to make rakhi at home
Raksha Bandhan quotes sms:
  • Brothers are like streetlights along the road, they don't make distance any shorter but they light up the path and make the walk worthwhile.”
  • “You were always my best friend, looking out for me, making sure the path I traveled on was smooth. Even if I searched the world over, there cannot be a better brother than you. Wishing You Life's Best Always.” 
  • “We were always close, looking out for each other even when life led us along different paths... Like an invisible thread, our love binds us together, making sure we'll remember where we came from and what we mean to each other. Wishing you a joyous Raksha Bandhan, Dear Brother.” 
  • “The loving occasion of Raksha Bandhan is the best time Brother, to reminisce fondly the wonderful moment we have spent together, sharing each other’s joys and sorrows… Thanks for spreading smiles everywhere and making life so beautiful, meaningful and Happy… My Dear Brother .” 
  • “You never say no, you never say thats impossible and you never say you can't. That's my bro, a superman who make things possible and who make paths smoother. I love you Bro.” 
  • “You are the person who holds me in my bad times, you are the person who dances with me in my happiness. I can't recall even a single day when you were absent from my life. I really love you.” 
  • Kaamyabi tumhare kadam chume,

  • Khushiyan tumhare charo aur ho,
    Par bhagwan se itni prarthana karne ke liye,
    tum mujhe kuch to commission do!
    To my extremely lovable (but kanjoos) brother…
    Just kidding as always.
    “Happy Raksha Bandhan.”
  • "Sisters is probably the most competitive relationship within the family, but once sisters are grown, it becomes the strongest relationship."
  • “Sister is someone who is caring and sharing. Sister can understand things you never said. She can understand pain which is not visible to anyone. I love my sister.”
  • “It leaves a smile on my face when I think of those trifling fights we had and suddenly used to make up. The memories may fade away with passing time but the love we share will only grow. Happy Raksha Bandhan, Dear Sister.” 
  • “God sent in my life a beautiful Angel in your guise, Sister. In good times or bad ones, you're ready to extend your help and support. Thanks for all you do.” 
  • “Sister is someone who is caring and sharing. Sister can understand things you never said. She can understand pain which is not visible to anyone. I love my sister.” 
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Ganesh Chaturthi Story Vinayaka Chavithi puja vidhanam katha khairatabad ganesh

Ganesh Chaturthi Story Vinayaka Chavithi puja vidhanam/katha 


Ganesha Chaturthi Date and timings:
 5th September 2016 (Monday) 
Madhyahna Ganesha Puja Time - 11:00 to 13:28 Duration - 2 Hours 27 Mins
On 4th, Time to Avoid Moon Sighting - 18:54 to 20:29 Duration -1 Hour 34 Mins
On 5th, Time to Avoid Moon Sighting - 09:05 to 21:07 Duration -12 Hours 2 Mins
Ganesha Chaturthi is the Hindu festivalcelebrated in honour of the god Ganesha, The son of Shiva and Parvati, Ganesha has an elephantine countenance with a curved trunk and big ears, and a huge pot-bellied body of a human being.He is the Lord of success and destroyer of evils and obstacles. He is also worshipped as the god of education, knowledge, wisdom and wealth. In fact, Ganesha is one of the five prime Hindu deities(Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva and Durga being the other four) whose idolatry is glorified as thepanchayatana puja,is observed in the Hindu calendar month of Bhaadrapada, starting on the shukla chaturthi (fourth day of the waxing moon period). The date usually falls between August and September. The festival lasts for 10 days, ending on Anant Chaturdashi (fourteenth day of the waxing moon period).
Weeks or even months before Ganesha Chaturthi, artistic clay models of Lord Ganesha are made for sale by specially skilled artisans. They are beautifully decorated and depict Lord Ganesha in vivid poses. The size of these statues may vary from 3/4 of an inch to over 70 feet.
Ganesha Chaturthi starts with the installation of these Ganesha statues in colorfully decorated homes and specially erected temporary structures mandapas (pandals) in every locality. The pandals are erected by the people or a specific society or locality or group by collecting monetary contributions. The pandals are decorated specially for the festival, either by using decorative items like flower garlands, lights, etc. or are theme based decorations, which depict religious themes or current events.

Story of loard Ganesha:
Significance of the loard Ganesha Form
Ganesha's head symbolizes theAtman or the soul, which is the ultimate supreme reality of human existence, and his human body signifies Maya or the earthly existence of human beings. The elephant head denotes wisdom and its trunk represents Om, the sound symbol of cosmic reality. In his upper right hand Ganesha holds a goad, which helps him propel mankind forward on the eternal path and remove obstacles from the way. The noose in Ganesha's left hand is a gentle implement to capture all difficulties.
The broken tusk that Ganesha holds like a pen in his lower right hand is a symbol of sacrifice, which he broke for writing the Mahabharata. The rosary in his other hand suggests that the pursuit of knowledge should be continuous.
The laddoo (sweet) he holds in his trunk indicates that one must discover the sweetness of the Atman. His fan-like ears convey that he is all ears to our petition. The snake that runs round his waist represents energy in all forms. And he is humble enough to ride the lowest of creatures, a mouse.

The story of the birth of this zoomorphic deity, as depicted in the Shiva Purana, goes like this: Once goddess Parvati, while bathing, created a boy out of the dirt of her body and assigned him the task of guarding the entrance to her bathroom. When Shiva, her husband returned, he was surprised to find a stranger denying him access, and struck off the boy's head in rage. Parvati broke down in utter grief and to soothe her, Shiva sent out his squad (gana) to fetch the head of any sleeping being who was facing the north. The company found a sleeping elephant and brought back its severed head, which was then attached to the body of the boy. Shiva restored its life and made him the leader (pati) of his troops. Hence his name 'Ganapati'. Shiva also bestowed a boon that people would worship him and invoke his name before undertaking any venture.

However, there's another less popular story of his origin, found in the Brahma Vaivarta Purana: Shiva asked Parvati to observe the punyaka vrata for a year to appease Vishnu in order to have a son. When a son was born to her, all the gods and goddesses assembled to rejoice on its birth. Lord Shani, the son of Surya (Sun-God), was also present but he refused to look at the infant. Perturbed at this behaviour, Parvati asked him the reason, and Shani replied that his looking at baby would harm the newborn. However, on Parvati's insistence when Shani eyed the baby, the child's head was severed instantly. All the gods started to bemoan, whereupon Vishnu hurried to the bank of river Pushpabhadra and brought back the head of a young elephant, and joined it to the baby's body, thus reviving it.

Ganesha, the Destroyer of Pride
Ganesha is also the destroyer of vanity, selfishness and pride. He is the personification of material universe in all its various magnificent manifestations. "All Hindus worship Ganesha regardless of their sectarian belief," says D N Singh in A Study of Hinduism. "He is both the beginning of the religion and the meeting ground for all Hindus."
108 names of Ganesha:
Akhuratha: One whose chariot is pulled by a mouse
Alampata: One who is forever eternal
Amit: One who is incomparable
Anantachidrupamayam: One who is the personification of the infinite consciousness
Avaneesh: Master of the universe
Avighna: The remover of obstacles
Balaganapati: Beloved child
Bhalchandra: One who is moon crested
Bheema: One who is gigantic
Bhupati: The lord of lords
Bhuvanpati: The lord of the heaven
Buddhinath: The God of wisdom
Buddhipriya: One who bestows of knowledge and intellect
Buddhividhata: The God of knowledge
Chaturbhuj: The four-armed lord
Devadeva: The lord of lords
Devantakanashakarin: Destroyer of evils and demons
Devavrata: One who accepts all penances
Devendrashika: The protector of all gods
Dharmik: One who is righteous and charitable
Dhoomravarna: One whose skin is smoke-hued
Durja: The invincible
Dvaimatura: One who has two mothers
Ekaakshara: One who is of a single syllable
Ekadanta: Single-tusked
Ekadrishta: Single-focused
Eshanputra: The son of Shiva
Gadadhara: One whose weapon is the mace
Gajakarna: One who has elephantine-ears
Gajanana: One who has an elephantine face
Gajananeti: One who has the looks of an elephant
Gajavakra: The trunk of an elephant
Gajavaktra: One who has an elephantine mouth
Ganadhakshya: The lord of lords
Ganadhyakshina: Leader of all celestial bodies
Ganapati: The lord of lords
Gaurisuta: The son of Gauri
Gunina: The lord of virtues
Haridra: One who is golden-hued
Heramba: Mother's beloved son
Kapila: One who is yellowish-brown
Kaveesha: The lord of poets
Kirti: The lord of music
Kripalu: Merciful lord
Krishapingaksha: One who has yellowish-brown eyes
Kshamakaram: The abode of forgiveness
Kshipra: One who is easy to appease
Lambakarna: One who has large ears
Lambodara: One who has a big belly
Mahabala: One who is enormously strong
Mahaganapati: The Supreme Lord
Maheshwaram: Lord of the universe
Mangalamurti: The all auspicious Lord
Manomay: The winner of hearts
Mrityuanjaya: The conqueror of death
Mundakarama: The abode of happiness
Muktidaya: Bestower of eternal bliss
Musikvahana: One who rides a mouse
Nadapratithishta: One who appreciates music
Namasthetu: Destroyer of evils and sins
Nandana: Lord Shiva's son
Nideeshwaram: Bestower of wealth
Omkara: One who has the form of 'Om'
Pitambara: One who has yellowish skin
Pramoda: Lord of all abodes
Prathameshwara: First among all Gods
Purush: The omnipotent personality
Rakta: One who is blood-hued
Rudrapriya: One who is the beloved of Shiva
Sarvadevatman: One who accepts all celestial offerings
Sarvasiddhanta: Bestower of skills and knowledge
Sarvatman: Protector of the universe
Shambhavi: Son of Parvati
Shashivarnam: One who has a moon-like complexion
Shoorpakarna: One who is large-eared
Shuban: The all auspicious Lord
Shubhagunakanan One who is The Master of All Virtues
Shweta: One who is as pure as the white
Siddhidhata: Bestower of accomplishments and successes
Siddhipriya: Giver of wishes and boons
Siddhivinayaka: Bestower of success
Skandapurvaja: Elder of Skanda or Kartikya
Sumukha: One who has an auspicious face
Sureshwaram: The lord of lords
Swaroop: Lover of beauty
Tarun: One who is ageless
Uddanda: The nemesis of evils and vices
Umaputra: The son of Goddess Uma
Vakratunda: One with a curved trunk
Varaganapati: Bestower of boons
Varaprada: One who grants wishes
Varadavinayaka: Bestower of success
Veeraganapati: The vigorous lord
Vidyavaridhi: The God of wisdom
Vighnahara: Remover of obstacles
Vignaharta: Destroyer of all obstacles
Vighnaraja: Lord of all obstacles
Vighnarajendra: Lord of all obstacles
Vighnavinashanaya: Destroyer of all obstacles
Vigneshwara: Lord of all obstacles
Vikat: One who is huge
Vinayaka: The Supreme Lord
Vishwamukha: Master of the universe
Vishwaraja: King of the world
Yagnakaya: One who accepts sacrificial offerings
Yashaskaram: The bestower of fame and fortune
Yashvasin: The beloved and ever popular lord
Yogadhipa: The lord of meditation
How to perform Ganesh puja:

Khairatabad Ganesh
Khairatabad Ganesh new look for this year is Thrishaktimaya Moksha Ganapathi and the height of god is 59 feet as completing 59 years.The expenditure to complete this idol around 60 lack.And the Laddu weight is 5600kgs made from Tapeshwaram.Ganesha is in the standing position with godess Lakshmi and Saraswathi.To the right of main ganesh idol will be a depiction of Gajendra Moksham dispalys with Elephant and crocodile and left side displays the Bhadrakali in sitting position.Nearly 150 works are working for making of the Ganesha.Mostly artists  are from chennai.The idol will be immersed in the hussain sagar lake on sunday,September27th.The governor of Telengana will inaugurate and CM will be attend it.
Rakhi Making How to make rakhi at home
garbha rakshambika stotram lyrics and audio
Stotras for mothers and pregnant women
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Naga Panchami Puja/vrat Vidhi Kalsarpa Yoga Nagaradhana

Naga Panchami Puja Vidhi/vratam 

What is Nagapanchami(Significance of Nagapanchami):

Nagapanchami is Hindus festival on that day they worships Snakes.According to Garuda Purana offering prayers to snake on this day is auspicious and will usher good tidings in one’s life.In this day Nagas are worshipped with milk, sweets, flowers, lamps and even sacrifices. Images of Nag deities made of silver, stone, wood, or paintings on the wall are first bathed with water and milk and then worshipped with the reciting of the some mantras.

Shukla Paksha Panchami during Sawan month is observed as Nag Panchami. Usually Nag Panchami day falls two days after Hariyali Teej.Currently Nag Panchami falls in month of July and August in English calendar. Women worship Nag Devta and offer milk to snakes on this day. Women also pray for the wellness of their brothers and family.

The main reason of celebrating this day must be that snakes are a great threat to mankind during these months.They usually come out of their holes as rainwater seeps in and while looking for shelter they might harm humans. However, this is why they are worshipped this day and fed with milk. 
According to Sarpa Satra:
Mahabharata epic, Janamejeya, the son of King Parikshit of Kuru dynasty was performing a snake sacrifice known as Sarpa Satra, to avenge for the death of his father from a snake bite by the snake king called Taksaka. A sacrificial fireplace had been specially erected and the fire sacrifice to kill all snakes in the world was started by a galaxy of learned Brahmin sages. The sacrifice performed in the presence of Janamejaya was so powerful that it was causing all snakes to fall into the Yagna kunda (sacrificial fire pit). When the priests found that only Takshaka who had bitten and killed Parisksihit had escaped to the nether world of Indra seeking his protection, the sages increased the tempo of reciting the mantras (spells) to drag Takshaka and also Indra to the sacrificial fire. Takshaka had coiled himself around Indra’s cot but the force of the sacrificial yagna was so powerful that even Indra along with Takshaka were dragged towards the fire. This scared the gods who then appealed to Manasadevi to intervene and resolve the crisis. She then requested her son Astika to go to the site of the yagna and appeal to Janamejaya to stop the Sarpa Satra yagna. Astika impressed Janamejaya with his knowledge of all theSastras (scriptures) who granted him to seek a boon. It was then that Astika requested Janamejeya to stop the Sarpa Satra. Since the king was never known to refuse a boon given to a Brahmin, he relented, in spite of protects by the rishis performing the yagna. The yagna was then stopped and thus the life of Indra and Takshaka and his other serpent race were spared. This day, according to the Hindu Calendar, happened to be Nadivardhini Panchami (fifth day of bright fortnight of the lunar month of Shravan during the monsoon season) and since then the day is a festival day of the Nagas as their life was spared on this day. Indra also went to Manasadevi and worshipped her.

How to perform Nag panchami puja:
On the day of Naag Panchami, houses are cleaned and holy offerings are prepared for Naga (snake). preparations are made a day prior to the day of Nag Panchami. Food preparations for Naag Panchami include Sevai (vermicelli), rice items, Laddoo (sweet dish made of dried condiments), etc.

A special Puja is performed for Snake God, in which the snake is bathed with Panchamrit (a mixture of milk, yogurt, sugar, honey, and butter). Besides this proceeding, Aarti is performed to invoke the blessings of snake deity.

It is believed that any Puja offered to snakes would reach to the serpent Gods. Hence people worship live snakes on the day as representative of serpents Gods who are revered and worshipped in Hinduism.
twelve are worshipped during Nag Panchami Puja - Naga kanyas
  • Ananta
  • Vasuki
  • Shesha
  • Padma
  • Kambala
  • Karkotaka
  • Ashvatara
  • Dhritarashtra
  • Shankhapala
  • Kaliya
  • Takshaka
  • Pingala
Nag Panchami Mantra :
Sarva Nagaah preeyantam mey yey kechit Prithivithaley,
yey cha helimarichistha yentarey Divi samstithah
Yey Nadeeshu Mahanaga ye Sarasvati gaaminah,
yey cha Vaapee tadagashu teshu sarveshu vai namah
Meaning:
May all Nagas whether on Earth, Sky, Swarga, in the Sun rays, Sarovaras or lakes, wells or other water bodies, be appeased as we greet these deities again and again.
or
Om Kurukulle Hun Phat Svaha
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Indian epapers newspapers list

Indian epapers newspapers list

India officially the Republic of India (Bhārat Gaṇarājya),is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the south-west, and the Bay of Bengal on the south-east, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north-east; and Burma (Myanmar) and Bangladesh to the east.In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and theMaldives; in addition, India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia
India has 22 languages which have been given the grade of National Languages.
Name of State/Union Territory Major Language Spoken Other Languages Spoken
Jammu and Kashmir Kashmiri Dogri and Hindi
Himachal Pradesh Hindi Punjabi and Nepali
Punjab Punjabi Hindi
Uttrakhand Hindi Urdu, Punjabi and Nepali
Haryana Hindi Punjabi and Urdu
Delhi Hindi Punjabi, Urdu and Bengali
Uttar Pradesh Hindi Urdu
Rajasthan Hindi Punjabi and Urdu
Madhya Pradesh Hindi Marathi and Urdu
Chhattisgarh Hindi Bengali and Oriya
Bihar Hindi Maithili and Urdu
Jharkhand Hindi Santali, Bengali and Urdu
West Bengal Bengali Hindi, Santali, Urdu, Nepali
Sikkim Nepali Hindi, Bengali
Assam Assamese Bengali, Hindi, Bodo and Nepali
Arunachal Pradesh Bengali Nepali, Hindi and Assamese
Nagaland Bengali Hindi and Nepali
Mizoram Bengali Hindi and Nepali
Tripura Bengali Hindi
Meghalaya Bengali Hindi and Nepali
Manipur Manipuri Nepali, Hindi and Bengali
Odisha Oriya Hindi, Telegu and Santali
Maharashtra Marathi Hindi, Urdu and Gujarati
Gujarat Gujarati Hindi, Sindhi, Marathi and Urdu
Daman and Diu Gujarati Hindi and Marathi
Dadra and Nagar Haveli Gujarati Hindi, Konkani and Marathi
Goa Konkani Marathi, Hindi and Kannada
Karnataka Kannada Urdu, Telugu, Marathi and Tamil
Andhra Pradesh Telugu Urdu, Hindi and Tamil
Kerala Malayalam None
Lakshadweep Islands Malayalam None
Tamil Nadu Tamil Telugu, Kannada and Urdu
Puducherry Tamil Telugu, Kannada and Urdu
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Bengali Hindi, Tamil, Telugu and Malayalam
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Indian epapers newspapers list
Doaba Headlines epaper
Dharitri epaperDesh Sewak Epaper
Assam Times epaper
Maharashtra Times Epaper
Jai Hind Epaper
Excelsior Epaper
Desher Katha Epaper
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Eenadu Epaper Indian Epaper
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Khabar Express Epaper
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Sanjevani Epaper
Maharashtra Times Epaper Indian Epapers
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Excelsior Epaper Indian Epapers
Desher Katha Epaper Indian Epapers
Desh Doot Epaper Indian Epapers
Dainik Batori Epaper Indian Epapers
Dainik Aikya Epaper Indian Epapers
Charhdikala Epaper Indian Epapers
Business Line Epaper Inadian Epapers
Bombay Samachar Epaper Indian Epapers
Bartaman Patrika Epaper Indian Epapers
Assam Tribune Epaper Indian Epapers
Ajit Epaper Indian Epapers

Check here Gold Rate Today
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Afghanistan epapers list

Afghanistan epapers list
Afghanistan is officially known as Islamic Republic of Afghanistan has more than 31 million people located in south asia and central asia and boardered with pakistan.
Afghanistan Capital : Kabul
Afghanistan Currency : Afghan afghani
Afghanistan most spoken Languages : Dari Persian, Pashtu (both official), other Turkic and minor languages are most spoken languages in afghanistan
Afghanisthan most spoken langugaes are the above and the news papers that are read in the morning are the epaper news that find
Daily Outlook Afghanistan Epapernewsepaper
Mandegar (Kabul) newspaper epaper
Kabul Press (Kabul) newspaper epaper
Dawat newspaper epaper
Afghanistan Times (Kabul) [In English] newspaper epaper
Afghan Daily [In English] newspaper epaper
8 Sobh (Kabul) newspaper epaper,
My Afghan newspaper epaper
Afghan Online Press [In English] newspaper epaper
Afghan Sport (Kabul) [In English] newspaper epaper
Afghanistan Sun [In English] newspaper epaper
Bassirat [In French] newspaper epaper
Benawa.com (kandhar) newspaper epaper
The Daily Afghanistan (Kabul) [In Pashto & Dari] newspaper epaper
Jawedan.com [In Persian] newspaper epaper
Khaama Press (Kabul) [In English] newspaper epaper
Larabar.com (Kabul, Kandahar, Herat) newspaper epaper
Sabawoon Online newspaper epaper
Sedaye America [In Dari] newspaper epaper
Taand (Kandahar) [In Pashto] newspaper epaper
Tolafghan [In Pashto & Dari]newspaper epaper
Wadsam [In English] newspaper epaper

The political history of the so called modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British Indiaand the Russian Empire. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919, King Amanullah and King Mohammed Zahir Shah attempted to modernize the country. A series of coups in the 1970s was followed by a Soviet invasion and a series of civil wars that devastated much of Afghanistan.
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Varthamanam Malayalam Newsepaper Indian Epapers

Varthamanam Malayalam Newsepaper Indian Epapers
                              Varthamanam Malayalam Newspaper Link
                  Varthamanam Malayalam Newspaper

About Newspaper:Varthamanam epaper is a Malayalam daily newspaper published from Calicut, Cochin, and Doha by Media View Limited.
Editions :Calicut, Cochin, and Doha
Language :Malayalam
Country :India
Varthamanam is a Malayalam daily published from Kozhikode, Kochi, andDoha by Varthamanam Ventures Pvt Ltd. Malayalam critic and orator Sukumar Azhikode was the founding chief editor of the newspaper. Mujeeburahman Kinaloor is the editor in charge of Varthamanam. Varthamanam as a newspaper uplifting humanity and morality of Muslim reformation movement of Kerala.It is quite natural that every reformist activities will have to face challenges.This venture has also had its detractors all through its journey from within and outside.However the daily has been keeping its high values in reporting and editorial.Even the media faced financial crisis in some months its management and editorial made no compromises in keeping its values.
The advent of Varthamanam sent ripples in the Malayalam Corporate News Industry circle in Kerala.To get through the onslaught, Corporate News Industry resorted to making the readers play games for months together, so the temptation of the new entrant not pose a threat to it.It was a fact that Varthamanam did not keep up its expectations due to its internal bickering.Now it is in its revival path with austerity measures. Certainly it has a space and goal.Asifali Kannur, MD and Associate Editor is confident of steering the newspaper to face the new challenges.

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Vanitha Hindi Magazine Epaper Indian Epapers

Vanitha Hindi Magazine Epaper Indian Epapers
                                    Vanitha Hindi Magazine Epaper link
                                             Vanitha Hindi Magazine Epaper
About Newspaper:Vanitha Hindi Magazine
Language :Hindi
Country :India
Vanitha is an Indian magazine published fortnightly by the Malayala Manorama group. It is the largest magazine in India by circulation according toAudit Bureau of Circulations, with average qualifying sales of 687,915 copies.
Vanitha was launched in 1975 as a monthly, but turned into a fortnightly in 1987. The magazine was founded by Annamma Mathew, wife of K.M. Mathew, a woman who has contributed immensely in the fields of social service, cookery, journalism and literature. Vanitha launched a Hindi edition in 1997.Although its name translates to "woman" in Malayalam, it includes articles on a variety of topics, and is not strictly a women's magazine.

Vanitha is owned and published by MM Publications Ltd. from Kottayam. MM Publications Ltd. is part of Malayala Manorama Group.In addition to being released twice a month, Vanitha also includes special double issues for Onam,Easter, New Year's Day and Christmas.

Between July and December 2000 Vanitha was the best-selling magazine in India with a circulation of 3,82,027 copies.In 2012, the Malayalam edition of the magazine had a readership of over of 2.27 million, making it the highest read magazine in India.
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Gold Silver price/rate in India Today

Gold Silver price/rate in India Today
Here we are providing Daily Exact gold and silver rate in 1,10,100 grams and in kg,ounce also.We are providing Gold rate/price for 24 carat,22 carat,18 carat.We updating Today Lowest Price,Highest Price.you can also compare today Gold/Silver price with Yesterday Gold/silver Price.We are providing daily best gold/Silver prices according to gold/silver market.We providing details for how to check purity of the gold/silver.We are explaining about KDM and BIS Hallmark gold and difference between carat and karat.

Today Gold Price In India Tuesday, 03 September 2019 ₹39,130▲

Today gold price in India given in Rs/10gm.
Gold Price  Weight Price(Rs)
1 ounce (31.103 grams) ₹121,707.90
1 kilogram ₹3,913,000.00
1 gram ₹3,913.00


Jewelry
  

Today Gold Price In India Cities
City 24 Karat 22 Karat
Gold Price in Chennai ₹38,873 ₹37,023
Gold Price in Mumbai ₹39,561 ₹37,681
Gold Price in Bangalore ₹37,972 ₹36,162
Gold Price in Delhi ₹39,602 ₹37,722
Gold Price in Kerala ₹37,441 ₹35,671
Gold Price in Hyderabad ₹38,874 ₹36,974
Gold Price in Kolkata ₹39,881 ₹37,991
Gold Price in Pune ₹39,599 ₹37,709
Gold Price in India (*MCX) ₹39,130 ₹35,869
24 Karat Gold Price In India
₹3,925 - gold price per gram
₹7,850 - gold price per 2 grams
₹19,626 - gold price per 5 grams
₹31,402 - gold price per 8 grams
₹39,252 - gold price per 10 grams
₹3,92,520 - gold price per 100 grams

22 Karat Gold Price In India
₹3,598 - gold price per gram
₹7,196 - gold price per 2 grams
₹17,990 - gold price per 5 grams
₹28,785 - gold price per 8 grams
₹35,981 - gold price per 10 grams
₹3,59,810 - gold price per 100 grams

Gold Price India - This Day, That Year
₹30,239 03 September 2018 +416 ▲
₹29,823 03 September 2017 -1097 ▼
₹30,920 03 September 2016 +4548 ▲
₹26,372 03 September 2015 -1191 ▼

Today Silver Price In India Tuesday ,03 September 2019 ₹48,059▲

Change: Up by +586 (1.22%)
Today silver price in India given in Rs/Kg.
Today silver price in India is 48,059 rupees per kilogram.
Silver Price Weight Price(Rs)
1 ounce (31.103 grams) ₹1,494.80
1 kilogram ₹48,059.00
1 gram ₹48.06

Lowest Silver Price Today: 46,761 Rs/Kg
Highest Silver Price Today: 47,491 Rs/Kg
Silver Price Yesterday: 47,473 Rs/Kg
Silver Price India - This Day, That Year
₹36,807 03 September 2018 -3214 ▼
₹40,021 03 September 2017 -5459 ▼
₹45,480 03 September 2016 +10830 ▲
₹34,650 03 September 2015 -6975 ▼

Silver Price Today In India Cities
City Rs/gm Rs/Kg
Silver Price in Mumbai ₹52 ₹51,600
Silver Price in Delhi ₹52 ₹51,600
Silver Price in Chennai ₹52 ₹51,600
Silver Price in Kolkata ₹52 ₹51,600
Silver Price in Kerala ₹52 ₹51,600

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Jewelry Whenever we plan to buy gold or silver ornaments the first thing that we should ensure how purity of gold we are buying.here we providing some signs for check the purity of gold which we are buying.
we should check hallmark before purchase gold/silver jewelry.For this we have to know which components hallmark contains.
BIS standard mark:
BIS hallmark tells that the Hallmarking is done by third party assessor and bears the mark of authenticity.
Halllmark looks like bellow


Purity grade:
Three digit number indicates the purity of gold
999 – 24 karat -100%pure gold too soft for jewelry
958 – 23 karat-hallmark would certify to a purity of 958 per 1000
916 – 22 karat-Popular in certain parts of the world such as India
875 – 21 karat
750 – 18 karat-75%pure Good balance of strength and value
708 – 17 karat
585 – 14 karat-58.5% Good balance of durability and value
12karat-50% Not used for jewelry
417 – 10 karat 41.7% Lowest Gold content that can be legally marked as Gold in the United States
375 – 9 karat
333 – 8 karat
Mark of hallmarking center(Assayer):
Every one must and should check the hallmarking center where the jewelry approved by assayer or marked as jewelry purity.there are different types of hallmarking centers we have.
Year of marking:
Alphabets represents the year of hallmarking of jewellery and is decided by BIS e.g. letter ‘A’ Donates Year 2000, ‘J’ for 2008, ‘N’ for 2010 ,‘M’ for 2011 and ‘N’ for 2012 and so on.
Gold Rate Today
Jewelers identification mark:
This is the identification mark of the manufacturer/jeweler selling the jewellery.Every manufacturer/jeweler contains different identification mark approached by hallmark center.

Keep three things in your mind if your buying gold/silver:
Look For :- Jewellery Showroom selling BIS Hallmark Jewellery.
Buy:- Hallmark Jewellery only. It assures the mark of purity/fitness.
Ask For: - Cash Memo /Invoice which will help BIS to resolve complaints (if any).
Ganesh Chaturthi Story Vinayaka Chavithi puja vidhanam katha
What is KDM means:

Without soldering hadrly to make jewel so make jewel easy.solder should have a melting temperature lower than that of gold, so just the solder melts and joins gold pieces without affecting the gold parts.In this solder was combination of gold and copper since it allows strong and make easy jewel,this is traditional method to make jewelry.There is no particular ratio for this solder.The purity of solder is very less about 60% or 70%near to22karat gold.For this reason to maintain gold purity instead of copper starting to used cadmium.In solder they used gold 92%,8%cadmium that means solder itself have purity.Such jewellery using cadmium began to be widely known as KDM jewellery.But shortly after the introduction of cadmium, it was banned by BIS as it was found to cause health issues for artisans working with it. After the ban, cadmium was replaced by advanced solders with Zinc and other metals. But the term “KDM” hung on and is still commonly used. So a KDM jewellery means it will have the same purity even when it is melted, as the solder itself has a purity of 92%.
KDM-marked jewellery was banned in many countries. KDM does not stand for quality. Using any type of gold solder either KDM (Cadmium) or other gold solder to make the jewelry does not guarantee the purity of gold, as the purity is a representation of the percentage of gold in any metal. KDM mark is a “statutory warning” against use of jewellery made with cadmium soldering. However, the jewellers often advertise KDM as a quality-mark and sell the jewels at a premium.
Gold Rate Today
What is the difference between carat and karat:

A carat is an unit of weight for diamonds and other gemstones. One carat is equal to 200 milligrams. To put this in perspective, one pound equals 453 grams, or 453,000 milligrams.

A karat is an weight used to measure the purity of gold. “24 karat” refers to pure gold, which is not often used in jewelry because it is very soft. Gold is usually mixed with other metals to make it harder or modify its color. So if a piece of jewelry is made of metal that is 18 parts gold and 6 parts copper, that is 18-karat gold.
Rakhi Making How to make rakhi at home
significance of raksha bandhan
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Gold Silver rate/price Today in India

Gold Silver rate/price Today in India 
Here we are providing Daily Exact gold and silver rate in 1,10,100 grams and in kg,ounce also.We are providing Gold rate/price for 24carat,22carat,18carat.We updating Today Lowest Price,Highest Price.you can also compare today Gold/Silver price with Yesterday Gold/silver Price.We are providing daily best gold/Silver prices according to gold/silver market.We providing details for how to check purity of the gold/silver.We are explaing about KDM and BIS Hallmark gold and difference between carat and karat.

Gold Rate TodayToday Gold Price 25,770
Sunday, 16 August 2015
Today gold price in India is 25,770 rupees per 10 grams (1 tola gold).
24 Carat Gold Price
2,577 gold price per gram
25,770 gold price per 10 grams
257,700 gold price per 100 grams
2,577,000 gold price per kg
73,057 gold price per ounce
1 ounce = 28.3495 grams
22 Carat Gold Price
2,362 gold price per gram
23,623 gold price per 10 grams
236,230 gold price per 100 grams
2,362,300 gold price per kg
66,970 gold price per ounce
18 Carat Gold Price
1,933gold price per gram
19,328gold price per 10 grams
193,280gold price per 100 grams
1,932,800gold price per kg
54,794gold price per ounce
Today Lowest PriceN/A
Today Highest PriceN/A
Yesterday Gold Price25,770 Rs/10gm

Today Silver Price35,422Rs/Kg
Sunday, 16 August 2015
Today 1 KG silver price in India is 35,422 rupees.
35silver price per gram
354silver price per 10 grams
3,542silver price per 100 grams
35,422silver price per kg
1,004silver price per ounce
1 ounce = 28.3495 grams
Today Lowest PriceN/A
Today Highest PriceN/A
Yesterday Silver Price35,422 Rs/Kg

whenever we plan to buy gold or silver ornaments the first thing that we should ensure how purity of gold we are buying.here we providing some signs for check the purity of gold which we are buying.
we should check hallmark before purchase gold/silver jewelry.For this we have to know which components hallmark contains.
BIS standard mark:
BIS hallmark tells that the Hallmarking is done by third party assessor and bears the mark of authenticity.
Halllmark looks like bellow


Purity grade:
Three digit number indicates the purity of gold
999 – 24 karat -100%pure gold too soft for jewelry
958 – 23 karat-hallmark would certify to a purity of 958 per 1000
916 – 22 karat-Popular in certain parts of the world such as India
875 – 21 karat
750 – 18 karat-75%pure Good balance of strength and value
708 – 17 karat
585 – 14 karat-58.5% Good balance of durability and value
12karat-50% Not used for jewelry
417 – 10 karat 41.7% Lowest Gold content that can be legally marked as Gold in the United States
375 – 9 karat
333 – 8 karat
Mark of hallmarking center(Assayer):
Every one must and should check the hallmarking center where the jewelry approved by assayer or marked as jewelry purity.there are different types of hallmarking centers we have.
Year of marking:
Alphabets represents the year of hallmarking of jewellery and is decided by BIS e.g. letter ‘A’ Donates Year 2000, ‘J’ for 2008, ‘N’ for 2010 ,‘M’ for 2011 and ‘N’ for 2012 and so on.
Gold Rate Today
Jewelers identification mark:
This is the identification mark of the manufacturer/jeweler selling the jewellery.Every manufacturer/jeweler contains different identification mark approached by hallmark center.

Keep three things in your mind if your buying gold/silver:
Look For :- Jewellery Showroom selling BIS Hallmark Jewellery.
Buy:- Hallmark Jewellery only. It assures the mark of purity/fitness.
Ask For: - Cash Memo /Invoice which will help BIS to resolve complaints (if any).

What is KDM means:

Without soldering hadrly to make jewel so make jewel easy.solder should have a melting temperature lower than that of gold, so just the solder melts and joins gold pieces without affecting the gold parts.In this solder was combination of gold and copper since it allows strong and make easy jewel,this is traditional method to make jewelry.There is no particular ratio for this solder.The purity of solder is very less about 60% or 70%near to22karat gold.For this reason to maintain gold purity instead of copper starting to used cadmium.In solder they used gold 92%,8%cadmium that means solder itself have purity.Such jewellery using cadmium began to be widely known as KDM jewellery.But shortly after the introduction of cadmium, it was banned by BIS as it was found to cause health issues for artisans working with it. After the ban, cadmium was replaced by advanced solders with Zinc and other metals. But the term “KDM” hung on and is still commonly used. So a KDM jewellery means it will have the same purity even when it is melted, as the solder itself has a purity of 92%.
KDM-marked jewellery was banned in many countries. KDM does not stand for quality. Using any type of gold solder either KDM (Cadmium) or other gold solder to make the jewelry does not guarantee the purity of gold, as the purity is a representation of the percentage of gold in any metal. KDM mark is a “statutory warning” against use of jewellery made with cadmium soldering. However, the jewellers often advertise KDM as a quality-mark and sell the jewels at a premium.

What is the difference between carat and karat:

A carat is an unit of weight for diamonds and other gemstones. One carat is equal to 200 milligrams. To put this in perspective, one pound equals 453 grams, or 453,000 milligrams.
A karat is an weight used to measure the purity of gold. “24 karat” refers to pure gold, which is not often used in jewelry because it is very soft. Gold is usually mixed with other metals to make it harder or modify its color. So if a piece of jewelry is made of metal that is 18 parts gold and 6 parts copper, that is 18-karat gold.
Gold Rate Today
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Gold Silver rate/price Today in India

Gold Silver rate/price Today in India  
Here we are providing Daily Exact gold and silver rate in 1,10,100 grams and in kg,ounce also.We are providing Gold rate/price for 24carat,22carat,18carat.We updating Today Lowest Price,Highest Price.you can also compare today Gold/Silver price with Yesterday Gold/silver Price.We are providing daily best gold/Silver prices according to gold/silver market.We providing details for how to check purity of the gold/silver.We are explaing about KDM and BIS Hallmark gold and difference between carat and karat.
Today Gold Price 25,805 per 10grams
Friday, 14 August 2015
24 Carat Gold Price
2,581gold price per gram
25,805gold price per 10 grams
258,050gold price per 100 grams
2,580,500gold price per kg
73,156gold price per ounce
1 ounce = 28.3495 grams
22 Carat Gold Price
2,366gold price per gram
23,655gold price per 10 grams
236,550gold price per 100 grams
2,365,500gold price per kg
67,061gold price per ounce
18 Carat Gold Price
1,935gold price per gram
19,354gold price per 10 grams
193,540gold price per 100 grams
1,935,400gold price per kg
54,868gold price per ounce
Today Lowest Price25,805 Rs/10gm
Today Highest Price25,919 Rs/10gm
Yesterday Gold Price25,919 Rs/10gm


Today Silver Price 35,910Rs/Kg
Friday, 14 August 2015
Today 1 KG silver price in India is 35,910 rupees.
36silver price per gram
359silver price per 10 grams
3,591silver price per 100 grams
35,910silver price per kg
1,018silver price per ounce
1 ounce = 28.3495 grams

Today Lowest Price35,910 Rs/Kg
Today Highest Price36,045 Rs/Kg
Yesterday Silver Price36,045 Rs/Kg

whenever we plan to buy gold or silver ornaments the first thing that we should ensure how purity of gold we are buying.here we providing some signs for check the purity of gold which we are buying.
we should check hallmark before purchase gold/silver jewelry.For this we have to know which components hallmark contains.
BIS standard mark:
BIS hallmark tells that the Hallmarking is done by third party assessor and bears the mark of authenticity.
Halllmark looks like bellow


Purity grade:
Three digit number indicates the purity of gold
999 – 24 karat -100%pure gold too soft for jewelry
958 – 23 karat-hallmark would certify to a purity of 958 per 1000
916 – 22 karat-Popular in certain parts of the world such as India
875 – 21 karat
750 – 18 karat-75%pure Good balance of strength and value
708 – 17 karat
585 – 14 karat-58.5% Good balance of durability and value
12karat-50% Not used for jewelry
417 – 10 karat 41.7% Lowest Gold content that can be legally marked as Gold in the United States
375 – 9 karat
333 – 8 karat
Mark of hallmarking center(Assayer):
Every one must and should check the hallmarking center where the jewelry approved by assayer or marked as jewelry purity.there are different types of hallmarking centers we have.
Year of marking:
Alphabets represents the year of hallmarking of jewellery and is decided by BIS e.g. letter ‘A’ Donates Year 2000, ‘J’ for 2008, ‘N’ for 2010 ,‘M’ for 2011 and ‘N’ for 2012 and so on.

Jewelers identification mark:
This is the identification mark of the manufacturer/jeweler selling the jewellery.Every manufacturer/jeweler contains different identification mark approached by hallmark center.

Keep three things in your mind if your buying gold/silver:
Look For :- Jewellery Showroom selling BIS Hallmark Jewellery.
Buy:- Hallmark Jewellery only. It assures the mark of purity/fitness.
Ask For: - Cash Memo /Invoice which will help BIS to resolve complaints (if any).

What is KDM means:
Without soldering hadrly to make jewel so make jewel easy.solder should have a melting temperature lower than that of gold, so just the solder melts and joins gold pieces without affecting the gold parts.In this solder was combination of gold and copper since it allows strong and make easy jewel,this is traditional method to make jewelry.There is no particular ratio for this solder.The purity of solder is very less about 60% or 70%near to22karat gold.For this reason to maintain gold purity instead of copper starting to used cadmium.In solder they used gold 92%,8%cadmium that means solder itself have purity.Such jewellery using cadmium began to be widely known as KDM jewellery.But shortly after the introduction of cadmium, it was banned by BIS as it was found to cause health issues for artisans working with it. After the ban, cadmium was replaced by advanced solders with Zinc and other metals. But the term “KDM” hung on and is still commonly used. So a KDM jewellery means it will have the same purity even when it is melted, as the solder itself has a purity of 92%.
KDM-marked jewellery was banned in many countries. KDM does not stand for quality. Using any type of gold solder either KDM (Cadmium) or other gold solder to make the jewelry does not guarantee the purity of gold, as the purity is a representation of the percentage of gold in any metal. KDM mark is a “statutory warning” against use of jewellery made with cadmium soldering. However, the jewellers often advertise KDM as a quality-mark and sell the jewels at a premium.

What is the difference between carat and karat:

A carat is an unit of weight for diamonds and other gemstones. One carat is equal to 200 milligrams. To put this in perspective, one pound equals 453 grams, or 453,000 milligrams.
A karat is an weight used to measure the purity of gold. “24 karat” refers to pure gold, which is not often used in jewelry because it is very soft. Gold is usually mixed with other metals to make it harder or modify its color. So if a piece of jewelry is made of metal that is 18 parts gold and 6 parts copper, that is 18-karat gold.Thanks for Visiting www.womenspage.in

 
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